Describe the main characteristics of the budgetary process (cycle, actors, instruments, etc.) in Lithuania.
The general legal framework for the budget, the relationship between the Seimas and the Government in the budgetary process is governed by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, adopted by a referendum on 25 October 1992.
The budgetary system consists of an independent State budget as well as independent municipal budgets (Art. 127 Constitution).
The main law governing the State budget is the Law on the Budget Structure (July 1990). It defines the content of both State and municipal budgets, the legal grounds for raising revenues and using appropriations, as well as the duties of their managers.
The Law on Fiscal Discipline (2007) sets an objective of a balanced budget in the medium term and long term sustainability. The Law was adopted in reaction to the fact that on 23 May 2007 Standard and Poor’s downgraded Lithuania’s credit debt rating. The Ministry of Finance concluded that the only way to persuade the markets of a stable economic perspective of the country would be to adopt a law which would be difficult to amend and would oblige the country to engage in a stable fiscal policy in a long and medium-term perspective. However, the Law on Fiscal Discipline did not establish a binding medium-term expenditure framework, and did not provide for an enforcement mechanism. Furthermore, as it was a simple law, its amendment was not more difficult than that of any other ordinary law.
The Seimas has a constitutional duty to approve the budget by law prior to the start of the new budgetary year, (Art. 131 (1) Constitution) i.e. by 1 January (Art. 129 Constitution). The Law on the Budget Structure enshrines a stricter requirement to approve the budget at least 14 calendar days prior to the start of the new budget year (Art. 20).
The Constitution allows the Seimas to increase the expenditure only provided that the Seimas identifies the financial resources that can cover it. However, if certain expenditure is provided by law, it may not be reduced until that law is amended (Art. 131(2) Constitution).
The municipal budgets are approved by the municipal councils. They include municipal revenues which are calculated on the basis of the rules defined in the Law on the Methodology of Determination of Municipal Budgetary Revenues and funds transferred from the State to exercise delegated functions of the state.
Under the Constitution the budget is approved for one calendar year. Since 11 July 2000 Art. 17(3) of the Law on Budgetary Structure provides that the State budget will be planned for three years (the budget year plus two succeeding years) based on the principle of strategic planning. Beginning with the budgetary year of 2014 the three-year planning rule is extended also to municipal budgets. The latter change implements the requirements of article 9 of the directive 2011/85 to establish a credible, effective medium-term budgetary framework providing for a fiscal planning horizon of at least 3 years (see also question VII.2).
The Budget is drafted and submitted for consideration to the Seimas by the Government (Art. 94(4) Constitution) no later than 75 days before the end of the budget year (ie by 17 October). (Art. 130 Constitution, Art. 18 of the Law on Budget Structure). The procedure of approval of the State budget is governed by chapter 27 of the Statute of the Seimas, which has a status of a law. There is no formal pre-budget consultation with the Parliament, although the Minister of Finance may consult the chair of the Budget and Finance Committee during the drafting process. The main focus of parliamentary scrutiny follows the presentation of the draft budget by the Minister of Finance in mid-October.
Following the Government’s presentation the Seimas has at least 15 days to consider the draft budget. Having received the draft, the Seimas then submits it to the National Audit Office of Lithuania. Art. 173 (1) of the Statute of Seimas requires the Office to present its conclusions on the Draft Budget to the Seimas’ Budget and Audit Committees by 15 November. The conclusions may also be submitted to the Seimas on its request and on the date set by it.
The National Audit Office also has constitutional powers to control the execution of the budget (Art. 134 Constitution).
The committees may submit their comments and proposals to the Budget and Finance Committee by 10 November.
Following an amendment of the Law on Budget Structure of 16 October 2012, starting with 2014 the Bank of Lithuania presents a report to the Seimas on the impact of the implementation of the general structural government balance impetus target on the confidence in the stability of the financial system and prices. Prior to this amendmend the scope of the report of the Bank of Lithuania was narrower and concerned only its duties as a central bank with respect to the banking sector.
The first reading of the Law on the draft budget in the plenary session is held on 25 November, followed by a second reading in the plenary session and approval in mid-December. The State budget and the main financial indicators of municipal budgets are approved by the Seimas adopting a Law on Approval of the Fiscal Indicators of the State Budget and Municipal Budgets. The Law covers the revenue and expenditure of the Government’s ministries and other budgetary institutions, and includes state allocations to the municipalities.
Should parliamentary approval be delayed beyond the beginning of the relevant budget year, Art. 132 Constitution allows monthly expenditure not exceeding one-twelfth of the State budget expenditure approved for the previous budget year. Under Art. 29 of the Law on the Budget Structure the monthly appropriations of every appropriation manager may not exceed one-twelfth of the previously appropriated funds. Such interim funding cannot be used for new activities but only for ‘continuous activities’, obligations established by laws and debt-servicing obligations. The Law explicitly exempts EU financial support and co-funding and other financial support from these restrictions. During the budgetary year, the Constitution allows the Seimas to approve adjustments to the budget under the same procedure as applicable for the main budget, and it may approve an additional budget if necessary (Art. 132 Constitution).
Following the parliamentary approval of the budget, the Government issues a decree that contains a breakdown of expenditure on the programme level and by economic category.
Under Article 5 of the Constitutional Law on the Implementation of the Fiscal Treaty Seimas is empowered to establish the medium-term objective by 15 March, for a maximum period of three years (see also question VII.10).
The government presents a report to the Seimas on the implementation of the structural impetus target and on the general government sector balance indicator by 1 May. If the structural impetus target is not implemented, the Government must also submit the reasons for that to the Seimas and to the National Audit Office. The National Audit Office then presents its report on the validity of such reasons and whether the measures on the implementation of the structural impetus target are appropriate. In view of this report, the Government must present the Seimas with the final list of reasons why the structural impetus target was not achieved. The Government has an obligation to do it at a time when the draft Law on Fiscal Indicators of the State and Municipal Budgets is submitted to the Seimas (eg by 17 October).
How has the budgetary process changed since the beginning of the financial/Eurozone crisis?
There have been no significant changes affecting the timeline of the budgetary process. The content of documentation has changed, as the European Semester and the relevant documents are now integrated in the budgetary process.
One more notable change is that since 2011 the budget formulation procedure has been amended allowing for an increased minister’s role in establishing priorities for their ministries.
Under the system used in 2008-2010, each year in May the Budget Department of the Ministry of Finance prepared preliminary allocations for the State budget taking into account the strategic goals, macroeconomic projections, preliminary limits on public investment for three years and preliminary data about EU fiscal support. In May or June, the Government would approve overall ceilings and limits on public investment for the budget year and the two succeeding years. The Ministry of Finance then set individual ministry ceilings and distributed planning guidance to appropriation managers, who on their own turn submitted their budget proposals by early September, followed by negotiations between the Ministry of Finance and the appropriation managers. As the Government approves the plan on fiscal indicators at the end of February – March, it takes into consideration the deadlines when it has to submit the relevant documents to the European institutions. Also, under the Law on Budget Structure the Government is under an obligation to submit to the Seimas the documents received from the European institutions adopted during the European Semester and to discuss their recommendations in the Draft Law on Fiscal Indicators of State Budget and Municipal Budgets.
In October 2012 the Law on Budget Structure was also supplemented with a 6th chapter which sets out the procedure with respect to a breach of fiscal discipline. It provided for the Government’s obligation to present to Seimas the report on the implementation of the government balance structural impetus target. If it becomes clear that the target is not met, the Law requires the Prime Minister to verbally explain to the Seimas the reasons for such failure. If the causes identified do not fall within the list of the escape clauses identified in Art. 39 of the Law on Budget Structure, the Prime Minister must explain them and suggest the specific measures which would enable avoiding them in the future. The Prime Minister is also requested to explain the causes of the hightened tax risk indicator as well as its medium term management perspectives. Art. 39 also lists the permissible causes justifying the failure to implement the structural impetus target or provisions on surplus and balanced medium term budget.
This duty applies to the planning of the 2014 budget and to subsequent budgets.
What institutional changes are brought about by the changes in the budgetary process, e.g. relating to competences of parliament, government, the judiciary and independent advisory bodies?
The major change is an extension of the competence of the National Audit Office empowering it to exercise the functions of an independent fiscal institution. (see also question VII.5).
This was done by the Constitutional Law on the Implementation of the Fiscal Treaty and the amendment of the Law on National Audit Office (No.I-907), both of which were adopted on 6 November 2014 and entered into force on 1 January 2015.
Another amendment enhanced the involvement of the Bank of Lithuania in the budgetary process. Starting with the budget of 2014 under Art. 19(3) of the Law on Budgetary Structure within 15 days after the Government presents the draft Budget to the Seimas the Bank of Lithuania is to present its report on the impact of the implementation of the general structural government balance impetus target on the confidence in the stability of the financial markets and prices. Also, after the adoption of the Constitutional Law on the Implementation of the Fiscal Treaty the Bank of Lithuania is under an obligation to submit to the monitoring authority its macroeconomic forecasts each time they are updated, but at least twice per calendar year (see also question VII.4). The provision also empowers the Bank to request information from state and municipal institutions for the performance of this function (Art. 9(2) Constitutional Law on the Implementation of the Fiscal Treaty).
Change of time-line
How has the time-line of the budgetary cycle changed as a result of the implementation of Euro-crisis law?
The timeline has not changed significantly. The requirement to make public the draft budget for the forthcomming year by 15 October almost coincides with the national constitutional deadline to submit the draft budget to Seimas by 17 October. Consequently there was no change of legal regulation on this issue.
What other information is relevant with regard to Lithuania and changes to the budgetary process?
No further relevant information.
 Lietuvos Respublikos biudžeto sandaros įstatymas [Law on the Budget Structure] Nr. IX-1946, 2003-12-23, Žin., 2004, No. 4-47. An official translation of the law in English is available at https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.440733?jfwid=cxhrny4f3
 Lietuvos Respublikos fiskalinės drausmės įstatymas [Law on Fiscal Discipline] Nr. X-1316, 2007-11-8, Žin., 2007, Nr. 120-4881.
 Aiškinamasis raštas dėl Lietuvos Respublikos fiskalinės drausmės įstatymo projekto [Explanatory memorandum on the Draft Law on Fiscal Discipline] Nr. XP-2394, 2007-07-09.
 Lietuvos Respublikos savivaldybių biudžetų pajamų nustatymo metodikos įstatymas [The Law on the Methodology of Determining Budgetary Income of the Municipalities], Nr. VIII-385, 1997-07-02, Žin., Nr.69-1743.
 B. Sudavičius, V. Vasiliauskas, Narystės Europos Sąjungoje įtaka Lietuvos Respublikos biudžeto planavimui, [The Impact of the EU Membership on the Budgetary planning in the Republic of Lithuania] in: G. Švedas (ed.), The 10th anniversary of the Lithuanian Membership in the European Union (Vilnius university: 2014) p. 469- 487.
 Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas, Statutas [Statute of Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania] Nr. VIII-1000, Žin., 1999, Nr.5-97.
 Lietuvos Respublikos biudžeto sandaros įstatymo 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37 straipsnių, penktojo skirsnio pavadinimo pakeitimo, Įstatymo papildymo šeštuoju skirsniu ir priedu bei 16 straipsnio pripažinimo netekusiu galios įstatymas [The Law amending articles 1, 2, 3, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37 of the Law on the Budget Structure] XI-2274, Žin., 2012-10-31, Nr. 126-6323.
 E.g. Lietuvos Respublikos 2015 metų valstybės biudžeto ir savivaldybių biudžetų finansinių rodiklių patvirtinimo įstatymas [Law on Approval of the Fiscal Indicators of the State Budget and Municipal Budgets for 2015], Nr. XII-1408. TAR, 2014-12-23, No. 20611.
 Lietuvos Respublikos Fiskalinės sutarties įgyvendinimo konstitucinis įstatymas [Constitutional Law of the Republic of Lithuania on the Implementation of the Fiscal Treaty], Nr. XII-1289, 2014-11-06, TAR No. 2014-17028. An official translation in English is available at http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=1012060 [last accessed on 23 November 2015].
 Lietuvos Respublikos valstybės kontrolės įstatymo Nr. I-907 2, 4, 6, 9 ir 23 straipsnių pakeitimo įstatymas [Law on amendment of arts. 2, 4, 6, 9 and 23 of the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on National Audit Office] Nr. I-907, 2014-11-06, TAR Nr.2014-16779.